Combined heat and power plant as heat and electricity supplier

Combined heat and power plant as heat and electricity supplier


Combined heat and power plants work according to the principle of combined heat and power. They are very efficient and adaptable due to their modular design.

The most expensive is the energy that is wasted. Combined heat and power plants (CHP) are excellent energy recyclers because they supply two types of energy from the fuel used: heat and electricity. They therefore have a very high overall efficiency with optimal use of both forms, which can be up to 90 percent. The shorter the distance between the CHP and the consumer, the better the energy recovery. Less energy is lost through lines and the total efficiency increases.

The various types

The performance range of modern combined heat and power plants is so large that they are used almost everywhere - from single-family homes to municipal utilities. They provide electrical power of between one kilowatt (kW) and several megawatts (MW). The main areas of application are single-family homes and apartment buildings as well as small businesses with a consumption of about 15 kilowatts. A mini CHP with an output of up to 50 kilowatts already supplies a small settlement. They produce more than 50 kilowatts up to a few hundred megawatts in municipal heating power plants and supply smaller municipalities with sufficient electricity.

Differences in the objectives of CHP use

When designing combined heat and power plants, it is important to consider whether electricity or electricity is used Heat should be provided. There is a distinction between heat, power and grid-controlled operating modes. If the CHP is mainly designed to meet the local heat demand, then it is heat-controlled and demand-controlled by a control system. Depending on the design of the systems, this is done by switching on and off modules, controlling the power of a single device or by connecting a buffer tank.

A power-driven CHP as an island system without connection to the public power grid should have a higher level of operational safety, especially if the indispensable power Buffer (battery) can only bridge a short downtime. On the other hand, a thermal breakdown of the same duration is less critical. The control of grid-connected systems is carried out from a central point, which controls a number of power plants in the interconnected grid as required. Based on contractual agreements, this center has the power of the grid and can remotely switch individual CHP units on and off.

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Video: Biomass CHP – wood chips to power and heat - wood gasification at Scotston Farm|

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